Fabric encyclopaedia

A

Abrasion resistance:

The abrasion resistance of fabrics is measured using the Martindale method. The wear of a fabric is simulated by rubbing a sample of the fabric to be tested against a standard woolen fabric. The wear number of these so-called abrasion tours is measured. The higher the number of tours, the more abrasion-resistant a fabric is.

10,000 abrasion cycles: for private households, little use
15,000 abrasion cycles: for private households, regular use
20,000 abrasion cycles: for public environments, regular use
30,000 rubs: for public environments with intensive use
40,000 abrasion cycles: for public environments, very heavy use


Acetate:

Acetate is obtained from natural raw materials (cotton) in a dry spinning process. Acetate is also known as cuproseid or artificial silk. In contrast to fully synthetic polyester (obtained from petroleum), acetate can absorb moisture and release it into the outside air. Clothing fabrics made of acetate are breathable, easy-care and crease-resistant.



B

Breathability:

Breathability refers to the ability of a fabric to allow water vapour to escape. The RET value (Resistance to Evaporating Heat Transfer) indicates how great a fabric's resistance to water vapour is. The lower the RET value, the better the breathability.

RET 0-6: extremely breathable
RET 6-13: particularly breathable
RET 13-20: satisfactorily breathable
RET 20 +: unsatisfactory water vapour permeability



C

Changeant / Changant:

Changant fabrics change their appearance depending on the incidence of light and the viewing angle due to different coloured threads in longitudinal and transverse direction.

Coating:

Coating of fabrics involves applying a plastic layer to a textile substrate to change the properties of the substrate (e.g. waterproofness, abrasion resistance, feel...). Common coatings are PVC, acrylic and TPU coatings.

Coolmax®:

Coolmax® fabrics are known for their optimal moisture wicking and very good breathability due to their special fibre structure. Moisture (sweat, water vapour...) is transported to the surface of the fabric and can thus evaporate particularly quickly. Coolmax® fabrics keep cool, dry quickly, are breathable, lightweight and machine washable.


Cordura®:

Cordura® is a particularly robust, abrasion-resistant polyamide fabric. In the production of Cordura®, cut polyamide fibres are re-spun and then woven.




D

Damask:

Damask is a fabric with a woven-in pattern. The pattern is usually created by alternating different satin weaves.

Denim:

Jeans fabric in a twill weave.

dtex:

The Tex value determines the fineness of fibres and yarns (mtex, dtex, ktex). The higher the tex number, the coarser the yarn or fibre.



E

Elastane:

Elastane is a collective term for elastic threads that lend elasticity and resilience to woven and knitted fabrics. Fabrics with spandex content are also less susceptible to creasing.

EN471 / EN ISO 20471:

EuroNorm for fluorescent colours.



F

Fleece:

Nonwovens are fabrics made of fibres that stick together. Non-woven fabrics are mostly used as insulation or padding material.

Functional fabric / functional textile:

Functional textiles are fabrics, woven or knitted fabrics with added functional value (e.g.: windproof, waterproof, breathable, thermoregulating, dirt-repellent, elastic, easy-care, warming/cooling...).




G

Gabardine:

Gabardine is a particularly smooth, dense fabric with a steep diagonal pattern created by the twill weave.



H



I

Indanthren® dyeing:

Indanthren is a synthetically produced dye. Fabrics dyed with Indanthren dyes have excellent fastness to washing, boiling, light, weather and chlorine.


J

Jacquard:

Jacquards are fabrics with artistically woven patterns.


K

kbA & kbT:

kbA stands for controlled organic cultivation. With organic farming, the use of chemical fertilisers, defoliants and synthetic pesticides is prohibited. In addition, the soil must have been used without chemicals for three years. The cultivation is done in mixed culture and crop rotation. The untreated cotton therefore has a very low allergy potential and is gentle on the skin.

kbT stands for controlled organic animal husbandry. This is always indicated when the wool comes from animals that have been raised organically and are kept in harmony with nature.


L

Loden:

Loden is a hard-wearing woollen fabric. Loden is often further processed into whale loden (see "whale loden").


M

Microfibre:

Microfibre is a collective term for fibres whose fineness is less than 1 dtex.

Cotton: 1.5 - 2.5 dtex
New wool: 3- 6 dtex


N

Nylon:

Nylon is the trade name for a synthetic fibre made of polyamide.



O

Oeko-Tex®:

Oeko-Tex is a testing and certification system for fibres, yarns, fabrics and textile end products.

Oeko-Tex® Standard 100: tested for harmful substances
Oeko-Tex® Standard 1000: environmentally friendly production facility
Oeko-Tex® Standard 100plus: products from environmentally friendly production that have been tested for harmful substances



P

Picqué:

Picqué is a fabric with alternating raised and recessed areas.

PVC coating:

Plastic layer on the back of the fabric that changes the properties of the fabric (waterproof, windproof...).



Q

Quilt:

A quilt is a versatile decorative blanket usually consisting of three layers: face, interfacing (fleece, wool, synthetic...) and underside.



R

Ripstop:

Ripstop fabrics are woven in a special technique and are particularly tear-resistant. Slightly thicker threads are integrated into the otherwise thinner fabric at regular intervals, creating a box structure. This results in a very good stability ratio and high tear resistance.



S

Softshell:

Softshell often consists of two or three laminated layers of fabric. The outer layer is usually made of a resistant material that lies over the climate membrane on the inside. The membrane is a wafer-thin vapour-permeable film that makes the textile windproof, waterproof and breathable. The inner layer is usually a lining fabric (micro fleece, teddy...).



T

Taffeta:

Taffeta is a shiny, smooth fabric made of silk or synthetic fibres, mostly used for lining garments.

Teddy:

Plush with a long standing pile.

TPU:

TPU stands for "thermoplastic polyurethane" - a plastic that can be plastically deformed when heat is applied.

Twill weave:

Twill weave (also called twill) is a basic weave for woven fabrics. The best-known fabric in twill weave is denim jeans fabric. Twill weaves can be recognised by the diagonal ridge.




U



V

Vichy check:

A Vichy check is a cube-shaped, two-colour block check.



W

Whalkloden / Walk:

Fulling fabrics are woven textiles whose surface is felted by fulling (pushing, compressing, pressing in warm, acid baths).

Woven fur:

Woven furs are woven imitations of fur.



X


Y


Z

Z-Liner:

A Z-liner is a layer located between the outer material and lining of a garment. Usually membranes or membrane fabrics are used as Z-liners.